2020 was a year unlike many, but one thing did not change: the importance and relevance of nutrition research. In fact, nutrition has been a key element during this unprecedented year as scientists study links between nutrition and viral infection, diet and health during quarantine, and food insecurity in a time of crisis.
To kick off 2021, we are sharing 10 of the most popular nutrition research articles from ASN’s four journals: The Journal of Nutrition, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Advances in Nutrition, and Current Developments in Nutrition.
Whole milk compared with reduced-fat milk and childhood overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2020, Pages 266–279, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz276
The majority of children in North America consume milk daily. Authors of this study evaluated the relation between cow-milk fat consumption and adiposity in children aged 1–18 years.
Regular Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Lower Regional Adiposity Measured by DXA among US Women
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 150, Issue 7, July 2020, Pages 1909–1915, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa121
Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of multiple health outcomes including a reduction in adiposity. DXA is a means to assess body fat and distribution. This study examined the relation between coffee consumption and DXA-assessed adiposity and adiposity distribution.
In addition to being featured on ASN’s nutrition research blog here, this article was covered by 127 news outlets and tweeted over 100 times. One popular news story was on Today.com for National Coffee Day.
Red Meat Intake and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk: An Assessment of Causality Using The Bradford Hill Criteria
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue Supplement_2, June 2020, Page 31, https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_031
Higher red meat intake is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases, but causation of these relationships is unclear. This umbrella systematic review qualitatively assessed causality between red meat intake and cardiometabolic diseases.
This research has been mentioned on Twitter almost 300 times!
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The Role of Zinc in Antiviral Immunity
Advances in Nutrition, Volume 10, Issue 4, July 2019, Pages 696–710, https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz013
Zinc is an essential trace element that is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. This review summarizes current basic science and clinical evidence examining zinc as a direct antiviral, as well as a stimulant of antiviral immunity.
This research was featured in Part 1 of the ASN Journals series addressing links between nutrition and viral infection, and also on Medium’s Microbial Instincts section.
Association of egg intake with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 177,000 people in 50 countries
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 111, Issue 4, April 2020, Pages 795–803, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz348
This study assessed the association of egg consumption with blood lipids, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in large global studies involving populations from low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
A Moderate-Fat Diet with One Avocado per Day Increases Plasma Antioxidants and Decreases the Oxidation of Small, Dense LDL in Adults with Overweight and Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 150, Issue 2, February 2020, Pages 276–284, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz231
This study investigated whether a healthy diet with 1 avocado daily decreased the following secondary outcomes: circulating oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and related oxidative stress markers. The authors concluded that one avocado a day in a heart-healthy diet decreased oxLDL in adults with overweight and obesity, and the effect was associated with the reduction in sdLDL.
Food Insecurity among College Students in the United States: A Scoping Review
Advances in Nutrition, Volume 11, Issue 2, March 2020, Pages 327–348, https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz111
There are a wide variety of college student food insecurity rates reported across studies and even among recent literature reviews. This scoping review aimed to develop a weighted estimated prevalence of food insecurity among US students using a comprehensive search approach. Study characteristics that may be related to the high variability in reported food insecurity prevalence were also explored.
This research has been featured in 21 news stories, including this one by MedicalXPress about how the COVID-19 pandemic has threatened food security for many college students.
Two apples a day lower serum cholesterol and improve cardiometabolic biomarkers in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2020, Pages 307–318, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz282
Evidence suggests that consumption of apples or their bioactive components is associated with beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and other markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to determine the effects of apple consumption on circulating lipids, vascular function, and other CVD risk markers.
Dietary Research on Coffee: Improving Adjustment for Confounding
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2020, nzz142, https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz142
Meta-analyses have reported higher levels of coffee consumption to be associated with lower mortality. In contrast, some systematic reviews have linked coffee consumption to increased risks for lung cancer and hypertension. Given these inconsistencies, this narrative review critically evaluated the methods and analyses of cohort studies investigating coffee and mortality.
This review has been tweeted almost 300 times!
Walnuts and Vegetable Oils Containing Oleic Acid Differentially Affect the Gut Microbiota and Associations with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Follow-up of a Randomized, Controlled, Feeding Trial in Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 150, Issue 4, April 2020, Pages 806–817, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz289
This study examined between-diet gut bacterial differences in individuals at increased cardiovascular risk following diets that replace SFAs with walnuts or vegetable oils.