1Have a clearly defined and achievable goal to benefit the public.
2Articulate a governance structure including a clear statement of work, rules, and partner roles, responsibilities, and accountability, to build in trust, transparency, and mutual respect as core operating principles—acknowledging there may be “deal breakers” precluding the formation of an effective partnership in the first place.
3Ensure that objectives will meet stakeholder partners’ public and private needs, with a clearly defined baseline to monitor progress and measure success.
4Considering the importance of balance, ensure that all members possess appropriate levels of bargaining power.
5Minimize conflict of interest by recruiting a sufficient number of partners to mitigate influence by any single member and to broaden private-sector perspectives and expertise.
6Engage partners who agree on specific and fundable (or supportable through obtainable resources) research questions to be addressed by the partnership.
7Enlist partners who are committed to the long term as well as to the sharing of funding and research data.
8Along with government and the private sector, include academics and other members of civil society (e.g., foundations, NGOs, consumers) as partners.
9Select objective measurements capable of providing common ground for both public and private-sector research goals.
10Adopt research questions and methodologies established by partners with transparency on all competitive interests, ideally in the precompetitive space.
11Be flexible in implementing the PPP process.
12Ensure ongoing transparent communications both among partners and between the PPP and the public.