As 2020 begins, we took a look back at nutrition in the news during 2019. The most popular diet search according to Google was intermittent fasting, which we can attest was a popular search term in American Society for Nutrition’s content as well. But there’s much more to nutrition than trending diets and many more areas in the field of nutrition were researched and discussed this past year. Below we share 10 articles from ASN’s four peer reviewed journals that received high levels of attention in the news and social media.
Effects of red meat, white meat, and nonmeat protein sources on atherogenic lipoprotein measures in the context of low compared with high saturated fat intake: a randomized controlled trial
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 110, Issue 1, July 2019, Pages 24–33, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz035
Authors of this study tested whether levels of atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins differed significantly following consumption of diets with high red meat content compared with diets with similar amounts of protein derived from white meat or nonmeat sources, and whether these effects were modified by concomitant intake of high compared with low saturated fatty acids.
The Ketogenic Diet: Evidence for Optimism but High-Quality Research Needed
The Journal of Nutrition, nxz308, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz308
The author of the article says that “Based on available evidence, a well-formulated ketogenic diet does not appear to have major safety concerns for the general public and can be considered a first-line approach for obesity and diabetes. High-quality clinical trials of ketogenic diets will be needed to assess important questions about their long-term effects and full potential in clinical medicine”
Just published in December of 2019, this article has already received nearly 1,000 tweets mentioning it.
Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 147, Issue 9, September 2017, Pages 1722–1728, https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.244749
Scientific evidence for the optimal number, timing, and size of meals is lacking. The authors of this study investigated the relation between meal frequency and timing and changes in body mass index (BMI). Their results suggest that in relatively healthy adults, eating less frequently, no snacking, consuming breakfast, and eating the largest meal in the morning may be effective methods for preventing long-term weight gain. Eating breakfast and lunch 5–6 h apart and making the overnight fast last 18–19 h may be a useful practical strategy.
The Relative Caloric Prices of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods Differ Systematically across Income Levels and Continents
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 149, Issue 11, November 2019, Pages 2020–2033, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz158
This study compared relative caloric prices (RCPs) for different food categories across 176 countries and ascertained their associations with dietary indicators and nutrition outcomes. The study concluded that relative food prices vary systematically across countries and partially explain international differences in the prevalences of undernutrition and overweight adults. Future research should focus on how to alter relative prices to achieve better dietary and nutrition outcomes.
Long-term coffee consumption, caffeine metabolism genetics, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective analysis of up to 347,077 individuals and 8368 cases
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 109, Issue 3, March 2019, Pages 509–516, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy297
The aim of this study was to examine if the CYP1A2 genotype or a genetic score for caffeine metabolism (caffeine-GS) modifies the association between habitual coffee consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The authors concluded that heavy coffee consumption was associated with a modest increase in CVD risk, but this association was unaffected by genetic variants influencing caffeine metabolism.
Perspective: Should Exclusive Breastfeeding Still Be Recommended for 6 Months?
Advances in Nutrition, Volume 10, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages 931–943, https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz039
Breastfeeding is always a popular topic in nutrition and in this study, authors reviewed the evidence behind concerns related to the WHO’s recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding of infants for the first 6 months of life.
Resveratrol: How Much Wine Do You Have to Drink to Stay Healthy?
Advances in Nutrition, Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages 706–718, https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011627
In this review, authors discuss the proposed therapeutic attributes and the mode of molecular actions of resveratrol. They also cover recent pharmacologic efforts to improve the poor bioavailability of resveratrol and influence the transition between body systems in humans. The authors conclude with some thoughts about future research directions that might be meaningful for resolving controversies surrounding resveratrol.
Blood type diets lack supporting evidence: a systematic review
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 98, Issue 1, July 2013, Pages 99–104, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.058693
A systematic search was performed to answer the following question: In humans grouped according to blood type, does adherence to a specific diet improve health and/or decrease risk of disease compared with nonadherence to the diet? The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase were systematically searched by using sensitive search strategies. The authors concluded that no evidence currently exists to validate the purported health benefits of blood type diets. To validate these claims, studies are required that compare the health outcomes between participants adhering to a particular blood type diet (experimental group) and participants continuing a standard diet (control group) within a particular blood type population.
Although it’s been around for a while, this article remains popular in the news. It’s been reported on by 27 news outlets, tweeted almost 3,000 times, and had 7 videos created about it. Some news stories include this one from Prevention and another from The Healthy.
Multiple Vitamin K Forms Exist in Dairy Foods
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 1, Issue 6, June 2017, e000638, https://doi.org/10.3945/cdn.117.000638
The plant-based form of vitamin K (phylloquinone, vitamin K-1) has been well quantified in the US diet. Menaquinones (vitamin K-2) are another class of vitamin K compounds that differ from phylloquinone in the length and saturation of their side chain, but they have not been well characterized in foods. The authors of this study conclude that, to the best of their knowledge, this is the first report of menaquinone contents of US dairy products. Findings indicate that the amount of vitamin K contents in dairy products is high and proportional to the fat content of the product.
This article has been featured in Wikipedia, multiple news outlets, and remains popular on Twitter.
Association Between Organic Food Consumption and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Sister Study (P18-038-19)
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3, Issue Supplement_1, June 2019, nzz039.P18-038-19, https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz039.P18-038-19
Diet is a source of exposure to pesticides. Organic food consumption may lower cancer risk, possibly due to decreased exposure to pesticides. Few studies have investigated the association between organic food consumption and cancer risk and evidence on the risk of breast cancer is limited. Although unmeasured factors associated with consuming organic foods may explain these results, organic produce consumption was associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
This abstract, presented at Nutrition 2019 in Baltimore, MD and published in Current Developments in Nutrition, was popular on social media being discussed on blogs, Facebook, and receiving over 132 tweets since publication.