A newly released study in The Journal of Nutrition confirmed a positive association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and prediabetes in a diverse cohort of US Hispanic/Latino adults.
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern in the United States, which disproportionately affects the US Hispanic/Latino population. Data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos indicated that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is twice as high in Hispanic/Latino adults compared with non-Hispanic whites. One well-established lifestyle risk factor for type 2 diabetes is the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. As an alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice are considered healthier alternatives. However, the association of these alternatives and risk for type 2 diabetes or prediabetes is unclear.
To better understand associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and 100% fruit juice with prediabetes and glucose metabolism markers among US Hispanic/Latino adults, Leonor Corsino (Duke University School of Medicine) and colleagues examined data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. This large, population-based cohort of Hispanics/Latinos of diverse origin and age (18-74 years) provided clinical measurements (weight, height, and waist circumference), blood samples (glucose metabolism markers), and dietary information (consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and 100% fruit juice). Diabetes was defined by self-report, glucose-lowering medication use, and American Diabetes Association laboratory criteria. Among 9965 individuals without diabetes, the associations of beverage consumption with prediabetes and glucose metabolism markers were analyzed.
Compared with individuals who consumed <1 serving per day of sugar-sweetened beverages, individuals who consumed >2 servings per day were 1.3 times more likely of having prediabetes and higher glucose metabolism markers. Consumption of artificially sweetened beverages showed an inverse association with insulin producing cells of the pancreas, but not with prediabetes or other glucose metabolism markers. Consumption of 100% fruit juice was not significantly associated with prediabetes nor with glucose metabolism markers.
In this diverse cohort of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States, higher consumption of sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of prediabetes. Given the high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in this population group, additional studies are needed to better quantify the dose-response relation between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and prediabetes/diabetes risk and glucose metabolism makers. Further investigation of the health effects of artificial sweeteners on glucose metabolism is also warranted.
Jee-Young Moon, Simin Hua, Qibin Qi, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Josiemer Mattei, Sarah S Casagrande, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Anna María Siega-Riz, Linda C Gallo, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Robert C Kaplan, Leonor Corsino, Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption with Prediabetes and Glucose Metabolism Markers in Hispanic/Latino Adults in the United States: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 152, Issue 1, January 2022, Pages 235–245, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab334.
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