By Celez Suratos, MS, RD, ACCN15 Blogger
It’s no surprise that obesity was one of the many topics covered at the recent Advances and Controversies in Clinical Nutrition (ACCN) conference. At his presentation during ACCN, Dr. Scott I. Kahan, MD, MPH, delved into the many obesity guidelines and algorithms that exist today.
According to Dr. Kahan and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, there are over 400 guidelines on the topic of obesity (this excludes the number of other various topics that may include obesity as secondary information). With an ongoing and growing list of information on obesity, how does a clinician sift through it all to find a best strategy to put into practice? Luckily Dr. Kahan summarized four recently published guidelines that can help anyone interested in knowing more about how obesity should be approached from a treatment standpoint. These guidelines were derived from the (1) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); (2) Endocrine Society; (3) American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE); and (4) American Society of Bariatric Physicians (ASBP).
The information shared in this post will be from Dr. Kahan’s summary of the guidelines from the NHLBI. The recommendations derived from this organization attempt to answer questions regarding the benefits of weight loss, risk of being overweight, the ideal diet an obese individual should follow, what lifestyle interventions are relevant to assist obese patients achieve and maintain weight loss, and the any benefits or risks of bariatric surgery, if such an intervention is necessary. The five recommendations a practitioner should follow when treating the obese patient include:
– Use body mass index (BMI) as the primary screening tool to identify patients who are obese (currently defined as BMI greater than 30). One should also consider waist circumference as a secondary screening tool to identify patients who may be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease
– Advise on moderate weight loss, as defined by a three to five percent reduction in weight, rather than a goal weight. Three to five percent may sound like such a small amount, but it can still have a great impact on various health outcomes in an obese individual. And it may be a less daunting goal for the patient
– Just like a magic pill to make a person instantly lose weight overnight does not exist, there is no such thing as the perfect diet prescription to guarantee sustained weight loss. The focus should be on an individualized meal plan that is lower in calories, incorporates the patient’s food preferences (to encourage compliance), and is used in conjunction with modified lifestyle behaviors
– A successful intervention requires a multidisciplinary approach inclusive of professionals from the fields of nutrition, physical activity, and behavior modification that proceeds for at least six months. According to the data included in Dr. Kahan’s presentation, during this comprehensive intervention period, patients with frequent on-site counseling exhibited more weight loss than patients who relied on other forms of counseling (i.e. electronic counseling, counseling through more commercial weight loss programs)
– The last recommendation from the NHLBI guidelines involves bariatric surgery when appropriate. At present time, patients with BMI greater or equal to 40 kilograms (kg)/meter (m)2 or greater or equal to 35 kg/m2 with co-morbidities, bariatric surgery may be a more viable option than the other previously mentioned recommendations.
Weight loss is not a “one size fits all” scenario; it is always best practice to individualize, individualize, individualize! Obesity is a complex issue that involves more than just number of calories, or those seen on a weighing scale. It is a disease state that constantly relies on a collaborative approach from experts in multiple health-related disciples in order to ensure the best results.