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What is Breakfast?

Breakfast is unique because it breaks a time of fasting (after a night of sleep). You are considered a breakfast eater if you eat your first meal of the day following your longest period of sleep, within 2 to 3 hours of waking and if your meal contains food or beverage from at least one food group. Your breakfast should provide at least 15% of your total daily caloric needs.

Should You Eat Breakfast?

Approximately one in five Americans are “breakfast skippers”. Skipping breakfast, as part of time-restricted eating patterns, such as intermittent fasting, has become increasingly popular as a weight management strategy. However, scientific evidence to support this is lacking. Many scientific studies have shown that breakfast skippers are at an increased risk for weight gain (e.g., increased hunger driving hormones, increased hunger throughout the day) and chronic disease.

A study comparing breakfast eaters to breakfast skippers found that those who ate breakfast had a decrease in appetite, improvement in healthy food choices and improved sleep quality. In addition, a study published in 2018 compared the effects of breakfast and dinner skipping in adult men and women. The study revealed that breakfast skipping, but not dinner skipping, negatively impacted the body’s ability to control blood sugar and insulin.

Research suggests that breakfast is important, but simply eating breakfast may only be half the battle. The true victory comes when you eat a high-quality breakfast packed full of protein and nutrients.

A Balanced Breakfast with Protein

Unfortunately, the majority of Americans who eat breakfast consume too little protein at their breakfast meal and instead, eat the majority of their daily protein at dinner. The higher amount of protein (greatly exceeding 30g of protein) typically consumed at dinner time cannot be stored for later use and is either used for energy or stored as fat.

Figure 1: Protein Distribution between Meals. Adapted from Paddon-Jones and Rasmussen, 2009

 

A high protein breakfast has been shown to benefit muscle health and to support weight loss by increasing muscle mass, energy expenditure (calories burned), satiety hormones, glucose regulation and by decreasing the desire to snack at night .

High protein breakfasts have also been shown to improve the body’s response to a high carbohydrate food up to 4-hours after the breakfast meal. A recent study looked at the effect of a high protein breakfast compared to a high fat or high carbohydrate breakfast on the body’s ability to control glucose and insulin following the consumption of white bread four hours after the breakfast meal. Participants consuming a high protein breakfast (30% protein) had improved blood sugar control and insulin levels after consuming the white bread.

Conclusion

Although breakfast may be the most frequently skipped meal in America, it continues to live up to its reputation as the most important meal of the day. So, when making your next breakfast choice, consider how much protein you have on your plate. Your first meal of the day can have long lasting effects throughout your day and on your long-term health!

References

  1. Nas A, Mirza N, Hagele F, Kahlhofer J, Keller J, Rising R, Kufer TA and Bosy-Westphal A. Impact of breakfast skipping compared with dinner skipping on regulation of energy balance and metabolic risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017; 105(6):1351-1361.
  2. Astbury NM, Taylor MA and Macdonald IA. Breakfast Consumption Affects Appetite, Energy Intake, and the Metabolic and Endocrine Responses to Foods Consumed Later in the Day in Male Habitual Breakfast Eaters. The Journal of Nutrition. 2011; 141(7).
  3. Pereira MA, Erickson E, McKee P, Schrankler K, Raatz SK, Lytle LA and Pellegrini AD. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children. J Nutr. 2011; 141(1):163-168.
  4. Baum JI, Gray M and Binns A. Breakfasts higher in protein increase postprandial energy expenditure, increase fat oxidation, and reduce hunger in overweight children from 8 to 12 years of age. The Journal of nutrition. 2015; 145(10):2229-2235.
  5. Mamerow MM, Mettler JA, English KL, Casperson SL, Arentson-Lantz E, Sheffield-Moore M, Layman DK and Paddon-Jones D. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2014; 144(6):876-880.
  6. Gwin JA and Leidy HJ. Breakfast Consumption Augments Appetite, Eating Behavior, and Exploratory Markers of Sleep Quality Compared with Skipping Breakfast in Healthy Young Adults. Current Developments in Nutrition. 2018; 2(11).
  7. Leidy HJ, Ortinau LC, Douglas SM and Hoertel HA. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97(4):677-688.
  8. Paddon-Jones D, Campbell WW, Jacques PF, Kritchevsky SB, Moore LL, Rodriguez NR and van Loon LJ. Protein and healthy aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 101(6):1339S-1345S.
  9. Chanet A, Verlaan S, Salles J, Giraudet C, Patrac V, Pidou V, Pouyet C, Hafnaoui N, Blot A, Cano N, Farigon N, Bongers A, Jourdan M, et al. Supplementing Breakfast with a Vitamin D and Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Medical Nutrition Drink Enhances Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis and Muscle Mass in Healthy Older Men. J Nutr. 2017; 147(12):2262-2271.
  10. Megn H, Mathan NR, Ausman LM and Lichtenstein AH. Effect of prior meal macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017; 106:1246-1256.

 

  • https://thedigestersdilemma.com/are-you-getting-enough-sleep-for-your-and-your-microbes/

 

Sleep in America

Do you prioritize your sleep? If you do, you are among the 10% of American adults who make sleep a priority. However, if sleep is not your priority, you may relate more to the 33% of American adults who currently sleep less than seven hours per night, which may have health consequences.

Potential Consequences of Neglecting Your Sleep 

Poor sleep habits can be detrimental to your overall health.  Short sleepers (<7 hours) and those with low sleep quality (sleep efficiency < 85%) are at risk for weight gain, obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Lack of sleep and low sleep quality have been associated with an increase in cravings and an increase in appetite. Current research has focused on how sleep duration and quality may influence or be influenced by nutrition and eating behavior.

Behavior Influences Sleep 

In one weight loss study, researchers observed sleep changes in overweight and obese participants over a ten-month period. Participants lost weight and slept longer at the end of the two-month weight loss plan and continued to sleep longer up to their 3-month follow up appointment. The researchers concluded that successful weight loss is accompanied by an increase in sleep time.

Another study focused on the timing of food intake and how it relates to fat mass and circadian rhythm (your 24-hour internal clock) in college-aged participants.  The findings of this study showed that participants with a higher body fat percentage (32.4% body fat) consumed more calories later in the day and closer to their biological sleeping time than the lean group (22.2% body fat).

Sleep has also been shown to influence food choices. Recently, a study found that when adults who were short sleepers (sleeping 5 to less than 7 hours a night) increased their sleep time by 21 minutes per night, they consumed less sugar and less fat when compared to a group that did not extend their sleeping hours.

Nutrition and Sleep

It is not yet clear if sleep is a driver of food intake or if food intake is a driver of sleep. Increases in dietary protein, fish and vegetables have been shown to elicit many health benefits including benefits related to sleep.  For example, in a weight loss study, dietary protein intake above the current dietary recommendations of 0.8g protein per kilogram of body weight daily, improved sleep quality in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults when compared to a normal protein diet.

Foods such as milk obtained from cows at night, fatty fish (>5% fat), kiwi (2 kiwi fruits/day 1 hour before bed), and cherries (tart cherry juice or whole fruit) have been labeled as “sleep promoting foods”, but further research is needed to justify these claims.

Nighttime milk is obtained by milking cows at nighttime. Nighttime milk is naturally higher in the sleep promoting hormone melatonin and the essential amino acid tryptophan. More research is needed to support the sleep promoting benefits of nighttime milk.

Conclusion

Sleep has been shown to impact various aspects of behavior and well-being. If you are looking to improve your health and nutrition, it may be time to put sleep on your priority list.

References

  1. Al Khatib Haya K, Hall Wendy L, Creedon Alice, Ooi Emily, Masri Tala, McGowan Laura, Harding V Scott, Darzi Julia and Pot Gerda K. Sleep extension is a feasible lifestyle intervention in free-living adults who are habitually short sleepers: a potential strategy for decreasing intake of free sugars? A randomized controlled pilot study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018.
  2. McHill Andrew W, Phillips Andrew JK, Czeisler Charles A , Keating Leigh ,Yee Karen ,Barger Laura K, Garaulet Marta ,Scheer Frank , and Klerman Elizabeth B. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017.
  3. National Sleep Foundation’s 2018 Sleep in America Poll Shows Americans Failing to Prioritize Sleep. (n.d.) Retrieved from https://sleepfoundation.org/media-center/press-release/2018-sleep-in-america-poll-shows
  4. Patterson Ruth E, Emond Jennifer A, Natarajan Loki, Wesseling-Perry Katherine, Kolonel Lauren N, Jardack  Patrick, Ancoli-Israel Sonia and Arab Lenore. Short sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and   expenditure among African-American and non-Hispanic white adults. J Nutr. 2014; 144(4):461-466.
  5. St-Onge Marie-Pierre, McReynolds Andrew, Trivedi Zalak B, Roberts Amy L, Sy Melissa and Hirsch Joy. Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 95(4):818-824.
  6. St-Onge Marie-Pierre, Mikic Anja and Pietrolungo Cara E. Effects of Diet on Sleep Quality. Adv Nutr. 2016; 7(5):938- 949.
  7. Verhoef Scanne PM, Camps Stefan GJA, Gonnissen Hanne K, Westerterp Klass R and Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weightloss and 3-mo weight maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98(1):25-31.
  8. Zhou, Jing & Kim, Jung Eun & Lh Armstrong, Cheryl & Chen, Ningning & W Campbell, Wayne . Higher-protein diets improve indexes of sleep in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults: results from 2 randomized            controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103(3):766-774.

By Jessica Currier

I’m sure most of you remember the chia pet, the clay figurines with sprouts of chia to resemble hair or fur, or at least the jingle on their advertisement, “Chi-Chi-Chi-Chia!” If you haven’t heard already, you probably will soon, people are now consuming chia seeds for the added health benefits. Who would have thought that a garden ornament could be ingested to promote health and vitality?

Chia seeds are from the desert plant Salvia hispanica, a member of the mint family, and can be eaten raw or added to dishes (1). Consumers add chia to baked goods, breads, porridges, smoothies, and can be ground and added to water or milk. The seeds can be purchased at local health food stores or online. The familiar chia hair or sprouts can also be eaten and added to salads, sandwiches, and other dishes (1). Numerous claims can be found in the media concerning chia. Chia being an excellent source of fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and antioxidants are some of the proposed claims. The media also claims that chia can help cut cravings, balance blood sugar levels, improve cardiovascular disease, lower cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and can promote weight loss. This exceptional list of health benefits really peaked my interest to find out the real scoop concerning chia seeds.

It is true that chia seeds do provide omega-3 fatty acids and contain fiber, antioxidants, protein, and minerals (1). While claims of weight loss and decreases in daily cravings may be a bit far fetched, increases in satiety due to the fiber and protein content may be valid. A study conducted by Nieman and Colleagues concluded that ingestion of 50g/d of chia seeds for 12 weeks did not influence body mass, composition, or disease risk factors in overweight/obese men and women (2). A recent study published in The Journal of Nutrition viewed the effects of a specific dietary pattern on Metabolic Syndrome (3). Sixty-seven participants with Metabolic Syndrome were involved in the study and were given a mixture to drink twice a day. The mixture chosen was based on antihyperglycemic, antihyperinsulinemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidants effects (3). Chia seeds were included in this mixture because of the presence of fatty acids and antioxidants that promote a reduction in the inflammatory response (3). This study concluded that a dietary pattern of nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat showed a reduction in serum triglyceride levels, serum CRP (C-Reactive Protein test, indicates acute inflammation or infection), and insulin AUC (3).

Although this study does provide encouraging outcomes, more research needs to be done with the conjunction of chia seeds helping to improve cardiovascular disease, lowering cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and weight loss promotion (1). Little published research concerning chia exists, and most information available is based on lab animals not humans (1). So remember, be an informed consumer with a critical eye when reviewing media claims. If you are looking for fiber or antioxidants, chia seeds would be a great addition to your diet; but for weight loss, stick with good old exercise and healthy food choices!

References:

1) Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. What are Chia seeds? Are There Health Benefits?

2) Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin F. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults. Nutr Res. 2009;29:414- 418.

3) Guevara-Cruz M, Tovar A, Aguilar-Salinas C, Medina-Vera I, Gil-Zenteno L, Hernandez-Viveros I, Lopez-Romero P, Ordaz-Nava G, Canizales-Quinteros S, Guillen Pineda L, Torres N. A Dietary Pattern Including Nopal, Chia Seed, Soy Protein, and Oat Reduces Serum Triglycerides and Glucose Intolerance in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. J. Nutr. 2012;142:64-69.