Monica Pasqualino, 2018 Gerber Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship recipient

Monica Pasqualino, 2018 Gerber Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship Recipient and PhD Candidate at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Monica Pasqualino received her B.A. in International Relations and History from the College of William and Mary, and her Master’s in Public Administration in Development Practice from Columbia University. She is currently a third-year doctoral student in the Human Nutrition Program at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Monica has been a member of ASN since 2017. Read more

Majid Mufaqam Syed-Abdul, ASN's Mars, Inc Predoctoral Fellowship Recipient 2018

Majid Mufaqam Syed-Abdul, 2018 Mars, Inc. Predoctoral Fellowship Recipient and PhD student at the University of Missouri, Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, School of Medicine

Majid Mufaqam Syed-Abdul received his B. Pharm from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University in Hyderabad, India and his M.S. in Nutrition and Exercise Science from Southeast Missouri State University. He is currently working as a Graduate Research Assistant at the University of Missouri, Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Lab of Dr. Elizabeth Parks. Majid has been a member of ASN since 2015. Read more

Andrew McLeod, ASN's Pfizer Predoctoral Fellowship Recipient 2018

 

Andrew McLeod, 2018 Pfizer Predoctoral Fellowship Recipient and Graduate Research Assistant at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Medicine

Andrew McLeod received his M.S. in Human Nutrition from the University of Illinois at Chicago and is currently working as a Research Assistant at the University of Illinois at Chicago Lab of Dr. Lisa Tussing-Humphreys. Andrew has been a member of ASN since 2016. Read more

Rebecca Hagedorn, PhD Candidate in Animal and Food Science at West Virginia University and ISPP dietetic intern at the University of Arizona

Rebecca Hagedorn received her B.S. in Human Nutrition and Foods from West Virginia University and she is now completing her Ph.D. studies in the Animal and Food Science program at West Virginia University. She is an NIH T32 Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences Trainee, a graduate of the Applied Biostatistics Certificate Program through the West Virginia University School of Public Health, and has advanced research training in behavioral analysis and experimental models. Rebecca has been a member of ASN since 2018. Read more

 

Jessica Soldavini, PhD Candidate in Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Graduate Research Assistant at the UNC Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Jessica Soldavini received her B.S. in Nutritional Sciences from the University of California, Berkeley, with a focus in Dietetics, and received her M.P.H. in Community Health Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is now completing her Ph.D. studies in Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Jessica is a Registered Dietitian and works as a Graduate Research Assistant with the UNC Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. She has been a member of ASN since 2017.

 

1. How did you first get involved in nutrition science and research? What led you to be interested in nutrition policy?

I first became interested in nutrition while I was in high school and decided that I wanted to become a Registered Dietitian. While studying nutritional science as an undergraduate at UC Berkeley I gained a variety of experiences Read more

The Impact of Open Access Publishing on Scholarly Publications and Scientific Societies

In September 2018, a group of European funding agencies launched “Plan S,” an initiative starting in 2020 that requires that scientific publications resulting from research funded by European funding agencies public grants must be published in Plan S-compliant open access journals or platforms. In December 2018, a delegation led by Robert-Jan Smits, the European Commission’s special envoy on open access, visited with officials of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and other U.S. federal agencies as part of an effort to gain broad support for Plan S.

Scientific societies are evaluating the impact of Plan S on the societies’ scholarly publications if Plan S or a similar open access policy were initiated in the U.S. Learn more about open access publishing, Plan S, and the potential impact of open access publishing models on scholarly publishing and scientific societies.

Join us for a talk sponsored by the American Society for Nutrition and American Society of Animal Science

Monday, February 25, 2019, 12:00 – 1:00 pm
2325 Rayburn House Office Building
Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.

SPEAKERS
Dr. Teresa A. Davis
Baylor College of Medicine Dept of Pediatrics
Dr. James Sartin
Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine

RSVP to sohlhorst@nutrition.org

Plant-Based Milks

I don’t necessarily need to take milk products out of my diet. But as a consumer who is curious about cooking, nutrition, and innovative uses for ingredients, seeing non-dairy, plant-based milk alternatives seemingly everywhere I turn makes me curious to know more.

 

For some individuals, belly and headaches or allergic reactions make a switch from all things dairy to a non-dairy alternative a requisite reality beyond mere curious inquiry or choice. Others may switch from dairy because they like a different taste or texture, or want an additional nutrient that a milk alternative offers. Whatever the reason, there is quite a variety of dairy milk alternatives to choose from, for purposes as varied as morning coffee, cereal, smoothies, or mashed potatoes.

 

Here’s an overview of what you need to know about non-dairy, milk-alternative beverages. Read more

A logical start when we think about nutrition is the mouth. The mouth is the first point of entry for all nutrients, in the form of the food we consume. Oral health and periodontal disease and their connection to nutrition run bi-directionally, where several studies have shown associations between individual micronutrients and periodontitis [1, 2]. Additional associations have been found between cumulative histories of oral problems including untreated caries, poor oral health, dental pain, restorations, extractions, use of prosthetics and food insecurity [3].

Periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supportive tissues of the teeth caused by microorganisms which result in progressive destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone [4]. Periodontitis impacts 40-90% of the world’s population and is one of the most prevalent epidemics globally. Several micronutrients also impact periodontal health and include vitamin A (carotenoids, β-carotene), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), glutathione and melatonin [5,6]. These anti-oxidants have been shown to help overcome reactive-oxygen species mediated inflammation present in periodontal tissue which leads to periodontitis.

It is estimated that 15.8 million children under the age of 18 years in the United States live in households that are unable to access nutritious food necessary for healthy growth on a consistent basis [7]. In addition, over-nutrition in the form of childhood obesity and overweight, particularly among lower income children, is compounded by a preponderance to more cariogenic foods. A study conducted in Japan documented association between high body mass index (BMI) and increased risk of periodontal disease among young adults [8]. An abundance of fast food, poor quality, high sugar and simple carbohydrate-based diets in lower income neighborhoods predispose children to the development of plaque, dental decay and caries [9, 10]. Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables deprive children of the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development [10]. Proper oral health care started at a young age is essential to ensure good nutrition and oral hygiene into adolescence and adulthood.

Pregnant women are more prone to periodontitis, gingivitis and gingival hyperplasia. Increased secretion of estrogen during pregnancy has also been linked to periodontal disease during pregnancy [11]. Periodontal disease both during preconception and in pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes including premature birth, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal loss, small for gestational age babies [12]. Antioxidant rich foods consumed during pregnancy, in addition to diets high in fiber and low in refined sugar are important to prevent periodontal disease. Improved oral hygiene is also essential.

In America, life spans have increased by upwards of 30 years in the last century. It is estimated that by 2050, people will live to an average age of 100 [13]. The elderly, in addition to children and pregnant women, are also susceptible to the impacts of nutrition on oral health. Among this age group, compromised oral health care, due to age-related factors such as tooth loss, use of oral prosthetics, a lack of appetite and mastication ability, in addition to altered taste and gastrointestinal conditions, are important concerns. An inability to consume certain foods due to difficulties with chewing and swallowing can compound food insecurity [14, 15]. Oral care in the elderly and customized nutrition to account for their complex needs is essential to ensure good quality of life.

The link between good oral health and nutrition is undeniable and complex. It is time for more concerted efforts to be made to link the two interconnected areas of health, across the lifespan. Increased efforts to educate oral health providers on the importance of nutrition education, in addition to ensuring proper nutrition security for at risk groups, will ensure healthy bodies and wide toothy smiles!

 

References:

[1] Dommisch, Kuzmanova, Jonsson, Grant & Chapple. (2018). Effect of micronutrient malnutrition on periodontal disease and periodontal therapy. Periodontology 2000, 78, 129-153.

[2] Najeeb, S., Zafar, M.S., Khurshid, Z., Zohaib, S., & Almas, K. (2016). The role of nutrition in periodontal health: An update. Nutrients, 8, 530.

[3] Santin, G.C., Martins, C.C., Pordeus, I.A., & Ferreira, F.M. (2014). Food insecurity and oral health: A systematic review. Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clinica Integrada, 144, 335-246.

[4] Newman, G.M., Takei, H.H., Klokkevol, R.P., Carranza, A.F. (2012). Carranza’s clinical periodontology. Classification of diseases and conditions affecting the periodontium. In Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology, 12th ed.; Michael, G.N., Henry, H.T., Perry, R.K., Fermin, A.C., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 45-67.

[5] Garcia, J.J., Reiter, R.J., Guerrero, J.M., Escames, G., Yu, B.P., Oh, C.S., & Munoz-Hoyos, A. (1997). Melatonin prevents changes in microsomal membrane fluidity during induced lipid peroxidation. FEBS Letters, 408, 297-300.

[6] Najeeb, S., Khurshid, Z., Zohaib, S., & Zafar, M.S. (2016). Therapeutic potential of melatonin in oral medicine and periodontology. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 32, 391-396.

[7] Coleman-Jensen A, Gregory C, Singh A. (2014). Household Food Security in the United States in 2013. USDA ERS.

[8] Ekuni., D., Yamamoto, T., Koyama, R., Tsuneishi, M., Naito, K., & Tobe, K. (2008). Relationship between body mass index and periodontitis in young Japanese adults. Journal of Periodontitis Research, 43, 417-421.

[9] Moynihan P, Petersen PE. (2004). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutrition, 7(1A):201-226.  Accessed 7/7/2015 at https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/public_health_nut7.pdf.

[10] Edgar, W. (1993). Extrinsic and instinsic sugars: A review of recent UK recommendations on diet and caries. Caries Research, 27, 64-67.

[11] Hemalatha, V., Manigandan, T., Sarumathi, T., Aasthi Nisha, V., & Amudhan, A. (2013). Dental considerations in pregnancy – A critical review on oral care. Journal of Clinical Diagnostics Research, 7, 948.

[12] Ziegler, J., & Mobley, C.C. (2014). Pregnancy, child nutrition and oral health. Chapter 2: In Nutrition and Oral Medicine; Touger-Decker R., Mobley, C., & Epstein, J.B., Eds. Springer Science+Business Media, New York, pp. 19-37.

[13] Ham-Chande, R., (2005). Shapes and limits of longevity in Mexico. In proceedings of the living to 100 and beyond symposium, Orlando, FL, USA, 12-14 January 2005.

[14] Sheiham, A., & Steele, J. (2001). Does the condition of the mouth and teeth affect the ability to eat certain foods, nutrient and dietary intake and nutritional status amongst older people? Public Health Nutrition, 4, 797-803.

[15] Brodeur, J., Laurin, D., Vallee, R.,&  Lachapelle, D. (1993). Nutrient intake and gastrointestinal disorders related to masticatory performance in the edentulous elderly. Journal of Prosthetics and Dentistry, 70, 468-473.

Sweeteners_Sanae Ferreira

Sweeteners_Sanae Ferreira

In the case of Shakespeare, a rose is a rose is a rose – all smell sweet. But, in the case of sweeteners, the story is not quite so simple.

 

Here are a couple of scenarios that may look familiar to you:

 

– You’ve sat down at your favorite breakfast place, and your server has asked if you would like some coffee or tea while you consider the menu. A carafe appears, your cup is full, and you instinctively reach for the narrow box containing a rainbow of packets. You reach for one, but are curious about the rest – what are they really?

– You’re at the store, trying to buy something to drink, and there are words you don’t recognize on the label next to “sugar-free.”

Read more

Choose your own adventure: Which scenario do you identify with?

  1. You wake up crabby and groggy each morning, reluctantly rolling out of bed after hitting ‘snooze’ three times at a minimum. You curse the morning as you shock your system with a splash of cold water- a cruel, yet necessary ritual. You grab strong coffee and a slightly stale bear claw pastry as an afterthought on the way out the door. This caffeine/sugar combination gives you life for a few hours until you succumb to intense hunger pangs at 11:30am. Take-out lunch quenches the stomach rumbling and dulls your throbbing temples, and you turbulently sail until the 3 o’clock hour, after which point productivity squeals to a halt. More coffee, a fistful of candy from the office jar (and some nuts and carrots in a half-hearted attempt to be healthy) offer a temporary solution. 5pm rolls around, and you leave work in a ravenous, foggy state of mind. You planned to hit the gym, but a date with microwave dinner and Vino are the way to your heart tonight. Once home, you sigh a great, empty sigh as you kick your gym bag to the corner of your room and fall face-first on the couch in one fell swoop.
  2. You wake up as early morning light streams through the cracks in your blinds, pleasantly surprised your alarm clock is set to ring in two minutes. You lie still for a moment, calmly preparing for the day ahead. You move through your morning routine that leaves ample time for breakfast, coffee, and reading the paper. Your philosophy hasn’t failed you yet: ‘Make it fast, eat it slow’: Today’s breakfast is a chopped apple, Greek yogurt, cinnamon, and steel-cut oatmeal topped with honey and slivered almonds. You grab your lunch from the fridge (a colorful salmon, farro, roasted veggie and garbanzo bean salad prepped the night before) on the way out the door. Around 11:30am, you hear a chorus of yawns around your open-layout office; Although wide awake, your stomach gently requests more fuel. Lunch powers you through a productive afternoon with a walking meeting (your preference) and impressive brainstorm session for an exciting new research study that integrates Nutrition, Psychology, and Neuroscience. At 4pm, you re-fuel body and mind with walnuts and blueberries for your planned strength training workout. Energized once more, you grab dinner out with friends- your favorite way to socialize! Roasted herb chicken, bread with olive oil, kalamata olives, and caramelized seasonal vegetables are the way to your heart tonight. Although it’s been a full day, you feel mentally and physically strong.

 

The above scenarios differ like night and day; Although each is dramatized for effect, be honest- most of us can identify with one situation more strongly than the other. Go ahead and select the category that resonates most with you, and let’s dive deeper with a brief brainstorm. What factors make the above scenarios glaringly different?

  1. Person A failed to plan, and Person B practically has a degree in Life-Skills 101
  2. Person A’s job is a drain, while Person B is energized by his/her work
  3. Person A might suffer from depression, while Person B likely does not

So far, so good: Each observation is a deeper reflection of the individuals’ moods. Person A is lethargic, fatigued, unmotivated, and ‘empty,’ while Person B is energized, mentally sharp, mindfully present, and fulfilled.

Excellent, let’s pursue this lead! Consider this: What deeper, underlying factor might account for these distinct moods? Consider one more glaring difference between scenario A and B, this time considering trends in the foods consumed:

  1. Simple carbohydrates, high sodium, and high saturated fat, with a modest sprinkling of vitamins, minerals, and fiber from primarily packaged-foods
  2. Whole grains, lean protein, ample produce, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, lots of fiber, probiotics, vitamins and minerals, and all primarily from whole-food sources

Credit: Easy Recipe Depot

Person A and B both know that their food choices influence their outward appearances- after all, you are what you eat! Digging deeper, however, we see that Person B still has an advantage: This person also understands that one’s food choices influence mental state and behavior! Whether intuitively or intentionally, this person knows a thing or two about an emerging research area called ‘Nutritional Psychiatry.’

Credit: Mind Brighton & Hove

Let’s briefly turn to the research to get the low-down on Nutritional Psychiatry:

If you begin your knowledge quest with a Google search of the term, you’ll find a variety of media reports and research foundations devoted to the topic. Case in point:

The Harvard Health blog published an article called “Food and Mood-Is there a connection?” This article articulates how certain dietary patterns may protect mental health. More specifically, a Mediterranean diet pattern rich in fruits, vegetables, olive oil, whole grains, and lean protein such as chicken and fish, and low in red meat and unhealthy fats may provide promising benefits. Important to note, however, is that one single dietary factor or lifestyle factor is unlikely to affect mental health independently.

The Conversation explains that although research is in early stages, “it is now known that many mental health conditions are caused by inflammation in the brain. This inflammatory response [may be] associated with a lack of nutrients…Recent research has shown that food supplements such as zinc, magnesium, omega 3, and vitamins B and D3 can help improve people’s mood, relieve anxiety and depression and improve the mental capacity of people with Alzheimer’s.

(Psst…see that hyperlink on ‘recent research?’ That’s a link to an original study! Click it, friends!)

-A research foundation called the International Society of Nutritional Psychiatry Research will direct you towards “high quality evidence for nutritional approaches to the prevention and treatment of mental disorders.”

Both sources are good places to start, but our search has just begun! You can either scour each article for links to official research studies written by the research teams themselves, and read such study (Rule of thumb: Media reports are for entertainment first, and comprehensive education second or third or fourth). Alternatively, you may turn to Pubmed and pull up a review article on ‘Nutritional Psychiatry.’ (What’s a review article? Aside from being my preferred, reader-friendly way to learn about science, here’s a description)

The fourth result in our original Google search is conveniently a link to a 2017 review paper called “Nutritional Psychiatry-Where to Next?” This article explains that “A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals’ diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression.”

While promising so far, comprehensive research is still needed in this area, as articulately stated by the same authors: “Key challenges for the field are to…replicate, refine and scale up promising clinical and population level dietary strategies; identify a clear set of biological pathways and targets that mediate the identified associations; conduct scientifically rigorous nutraceutical and ‘psychobiotic’ interventions that also examine predictors of treatment response; conduct observational and experimental studies in psychosis focused on dietary and related risk factors and treatments; and continue to advocate for policy change to improve the food environment at the population level.”